The admixture tests are designed to tell what percentages a person has of ancestry of Native American, "European", East Asian, and Sub-Saharan African. One company describes these four biogeographic groups as follows:
- Native American: Populations that migrated from Asia to inhabit North, South and Central America.
- European: European, Middle Eastern and South Asian populations from the Indian subcontinent, including India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
- East Asian: Japanese, Chinese, Mongolian, Korean, Southeast Asian and Pacific Islander populations, including populations native to the Philippines.
- African: Populations from Sub-Saharan Africa such as Nigeria and Congo region.
In 2006, another company developed an autosomal DNA ancestry-tracing product that combined the traditional CODIS markers used by law enforcement officers and the judicial system with OmniPop, a population database developed by San Diego detective Brian Burritt. Customers received matches to their profile's frequency of occurrence in world populations, as well as a breakout for European ancestry based on the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI). As a public service, the company has supported the expansion of OmniPop, which currently encompasses over 360 populations, double that of its first release. The ENFSI calculator uses data from 24 European populations (5700 profiles). The two databases must be searched separately, because they are based on two different sets of markers. The company sells its product as the DNA Fingerprint Test. The 16 markers incorporated in its results are: D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSFIPO, D3S1358, THO1, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, VWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818, and FGA.
The theory behind using a forensic profile for ancestry tracing is that the alleles' respective frequency of occurrence develops over generations with equal input of the two parents, since for each location we take one value from our mother and one from our father. It thus serves as a window into a person's total ancestral composition. The configuration of scores reflects inherited changes from all previous generations in all ancestral lines, and can predict an individual's unique probable ethnic matches based on the profile's frequency or rarity in different populations.
To give an idea of the inclusiveness of the latest version of OmniPop, the following are the last populations that have been added:
- Sikkim (India)
- Bhutia (India)
- Argentinian (Misiones)
- Hungarian (E. Romani)
- Hungarian (Ashkenazim)
- Romanian (Szekler)
- Romanian (Csango)
- Tibet (Luoba)
Along the same lines, yet another company identifies the indigenous and diaspora populations in which an individual's autosomal STR profile is most common. This test examines autosomal STRs, which are locations on a chromosome where a pattern of two or more nucleotides is repeated and the repetitions are directly adjacent to each other. The populations in which the individual's profile is most common are identified and assigned a likelihood score. The individual's profile is assigned a likelihood of membership in each of thirty-four world regions: